Wednesday, August 11, 2010

All The Shah's Men (part 2)

Before getting to the core of problems during the era after WW II until the events of Islamic Revolution in 1979, we need to have a quick look at one of the most extra ordinary and magnificent documents which has shed light on many of dark and obscure corners of the history of our nation in modern times. This document is called "Freemasonry in Iran" authored by Esmail Raeen whose life was taken because of that as he predicted when he started preparing it over 20 years earlier. Mr. Raeen has done extensive research and gathered a lot of original documents regarding the affairs that Freemasons have been involved in our country. During his research, he was threatened multiple times. He was once even imprisoned with false accusations under influence of some Freemasons who had infiltrated every organization of the nation, but later another freemason released him from prison! He says it was right after that which he could access a lot of information and documents to prove his suspicion of evil intentions and actions of Freemasons towards our nation. Mr. Raeen has met many Iranian Freemasons from whom some were openly admitting to being a Freemason and proud of it too! According to Mr. Raeen, there are some honest, dignified and patriotic people among Iranian Freemasons but there are also others who are evil and greedy and think of nothing other than gathering wealth in corrupt ways and serving the agenda of their alien masters. He believes that it is possible that many Iranians who joined freemason did so with clean and honest intentions because they were deceived by the messages of freedom, brotherhood and equality from this fraternity but later found themselves trapped in undesirable situations with traitors and foreigners. Dr. Mohammad Mosadegh might have been one example of such case that Mr. Raeen talks about. He briefly joined Adamiyat Society which apparently promoted cause of democracy before the events that ended up with Constitutional Revolution but later started working with "majma'e ensaniyat" (humanity society) which was held in Mostofi-Ashtiyani's house. A document was later released by Fereydun Adamiyat (son of Hussein-Qoli the founder of Adamiyat Society) which apparently shows the handwriting of Dr. Mossadegh taking the oath of loyalty to the cause of Adamiyat Society that according to some interpretations was the Constitutional Revolution and dignity of human being. It is unclear why Adamiyat Society should have taken such measures in getting a written oath of loyalty from its members and what has been the purpose of secrecy in their activities. Some people believe that taking the oath of loyalty was in accord with Masonic traditions which Adamiyat Society representing.

According to Mr. Raeen, Freemasonry lodges in Iran have been linked with different Masonic grand lodges of different countries that included England, France, Germany, USA, Switzerland etc... The lodges with links to England and USA were more popular and more influential than others among Iranians. Many Iranian politicians of all ranks had membership in different lodges of Freemasonry. Mr. Raeen mentions that after events of WW II and invasion of Iran, only a few of the Iran's Prime Ministers WERE NOT Freemasons which included: Ali Razmara, Asadollah Alam, Ali Amini, Abdolhossin Hajhir and Fazlollah Zahedi. He also states in his well researched book that except for Reza Khan whose control over military might have helped him to survive and implement his nationalist agenda, all other Prime Ministers who were not Freemasons during previous 150 years, were either killed or pushed out of political power by them.

Mr. Raeen has written in some details that how Freemasonry started in Iran and mentions name of Sir Gore Ouseley as the first Freemason who entered most of Iranians of the royal court of Qajari Shah and many other high ranking Iranian aristocrats in Freemasons fraternity which included the Prime Minister at that time. Ouseley who held a high status among British Freemasons, believed that Iranian society was "wild and barbaric" and suggested to British foreign minister that keeping them in that state would help British to protect their interests in India through creation of continuous chaos and weakening of Iranian central government. He helped preparation of defeat of Abbas Mirza of Qajar in his battle against Russians by passing the secrets of military plans and arrangement of his forces to Russians which was in accordance with the policies of keeping Iranian government weak and miserable. Later, after the war, he represented the Qajar King to negotiate the treaties that broke up major areas of northern Iranian territories from the mainland. He did all of this with the help of Iranian Freemasons in the royal court and around the Qajar Shah from whom Abolhassan Ilchi had bigger role.

Ouseley was later awarded with one of highest medals of honor by Russian Tsar (probably another Freemason brother). From that point Freemasonry has always played its destructive role in the affairs of our nation and Freemasons were despised by some of Iranian people who noticed their evil deeds while a good portion of Iranian elite, for different reasons, continued to work with them against the interests of the nation. The activities of Freemasons were driven into obscurity during the reign of Reza Shah but even at that time, many of most active Iranian politicians in the system and others who were involved in different affairs of the nation were secretly linked with that fraternity. Mr. Foroughi and Mr. Taghizadeh are just two of many well known names. Others include: Mr. Jafar Sharif-Emami, Mr. Mahmoud Djam, Mr. Mohammad-Taghi Eskandani, Mr. Zaryab Kho'ee (Abbas), Mr. Yarshater (Ehsan), Mr. Zarinkub (Abdulhossein), Mr. Safa (Zabihollah), Entezam (Abdullah and Asdollah) and many others who were all involved with political, economical and cultural affairs of the nation in one way or another.

Mr. Tolou-ee in his book "Pedar va Pesar" (Father and Son) has raised the possibility of Mr. Foroughi having a hand in removal of Reza Shah through British. Apparently, other than personal grievances of Mr. Foroughi against Reza Shah because of previous maltreatment, he had also complained to British Ambassador about Reza Shah's treatment of his high ranking government officials during the same time that occupying forces were present in Iran. There are some hints in the writings of Reader Bullard (British Ambassador) and Winston Churchill which show the decision to force Reza Shah to abdicate had not been taken before invasion of Iran. Reader Bullard in his memoirs about the invasion and forcing Reza Shah out of power says that, most of Iranians were in favor of removal of Shah but we had no intention of doing that as long as transportation of goods and military supplies to Russia through Iran would continue without any problem. He has not mentioned where did he obtained that information from and who those Iranians were but it would be reasonable to think that he received such feedback from those who were in close contact with him and Mr. Foroughi with much feelings of resentment (because of previous ill treatments) towards Reza Shah was one of them. He states that we (the invaders) did not want to get into internal affairs of Iranians but Iranian people were not happy about that because they believed Reza Shah was installed and supported by British and wanted to get rid of him. This matter apparently became the foundation for spreading of lies and accusations against Reza Shah through BBC Farsi program which had started to work just for such purpose during the beginning days of occupation of Iran.

BBC's reports were prepared and sent to London from British Embassy in Tehran by a staff named Ms. Lambton to reflect most current events in Iran and provoke the society against Reza Shah. Winston Churchill has written in his memoirs about why it was necessary for British to use Iran in order to help Soviet Russians while keeping the hands of Germans from Iranian oil. British had discussed this matter with the Soviets about three months before the invasion which they agreed but their condition was to do it in joint operation. There was no mention of anything regarding Reza Shah at that time and the decision in that regard was probably taken later when British and Russian troops were in Iran. All available evidences from British communication documents show that presence of a few hundreds of German citizens in Iran was just an excuse and no matter what Iranian government would do, the invasion was inevitable. Reza Shah wrote a letter about this matter to American President after the invasion and asked for his help to protect the integrity of Iranian territory. According to Assadollah Entezam in his memoirs, American ambassador agreed with Reza Shah's viewpoints regarding the invasion by British and Soviet forces in a private meeting in which, Reza Shah verbally expressed his appreciation in response to President Roosevelt's letter and his support of Iran's territorial integrity.

After this short review of some of the issues that influenced later current of events in the country, we get to the era of Mohammad Reza Shah Pahlavi in Iran. Mohammad Reza Shah started his reign on a very bumpy road from the beginning at the age of 22 after his father Reza Shah was forced to resign by British occupying forces. Most of the world was in the state of war and Iran was under occupation of old enemies with no real means to resist their demands and stop their mad behaviors towards the resources of the country and its people. Iranian government had no real power to deal with issues created by occupiers. Iranian politicians were mostly suspected of having links with British or Soviets, and Americans had also entered a new phase in relations with Iran to make things more complicated than before. While Soviets tried to influence the affairs of Iran through Tudeh party, British were doing the same through more obscure methods with the help of Anglophile politicians and clergies who had a long lasting relation with them. Americans, a nation founded by Freemasons, would definitely see better possibilities for themselves in future of Iran, as foreseen by Mr. Hoover.

One of the major issues which faced Iranian government during occupation was to reach any kind of negotiation or contract with any of the invaders to accomplish anything for betterment of the nation. This matter could easily cause a lot of problems for the Iranian government as seen in the case of northern oil discussion with Americans. Another issue was that during those times, Soviet Union had taken advantage of the opportunity to start the process of secession of northern and western portions of Iranian territories by installing and supporting a group of their own puppets as local governments. This matter was carried out with the help of Tudeh party and its military organization which was formed secretly inside Iranian army. Military organization of Tudeh party, against all norms in any army in the free world (which requires army to be free of association with any political party), was formed by the followers of Tudeh party within high ranking officers of Iranian army and became an element of real threat to stability and integrity of the nation. According to some stories, another group of officers in the army had organized themselves as nationalist military organization around the same time and had links with National Front. Lack of enough control by Iranian government over the affairs of military and misconceptions of leaders of the country about democracy had resulted in a near chaos situation in the army which was built through a painstaking process and a lot of hard work during the reign of Reza Shah.

All the works which were previously carried out during the era of Reza Shah were brought under scrutiny and in many cases criticized and condemned by old and new opposition. From building of the railways and roads to organizing the military, to expansion of education and dispatch of Iranian students to Europe and everything else was condemned by opposition who apparently believed all those work was done against the interests of Iranian people! The amount of nonsense which was put forward by the opposition that was mostly encouraged by limitless freedom (without any sense of responsibility) and motivated by presence of foreign powers that openly meddled in the affairs of the nation; was beyond sanity. The behaviors of Iranian elite in that chaotic situation justified the policies which were suggested by Gore Ouseley about 150 years earlier. Vulgarity and lompanism was the order of the day, as it is in the politics of Iran of today since 1979.

Soon after end of WW II, Iranian government faced one of the most serious challenges and threats to its integrity by occupying forces of Soviet Union which refused to leave while demanding for the oil concession in the northern region of Iran. Tudeh party was 100% behind Soviets demands in this regard and they even dispatched a group of the officers from their military organization to assist in organizing an army for so called democratic republic of Azarbaijan which was declared by Jafar Pishevary with support of Soviets. This was done in order to put Iranian government under pressure and even take away Azarbaijan from Iran if possible. Prime Minister of Iran was Qavam o-Saltaneh at that time. Qavam was known as a seasoned politician from Qajar era. He was the author of the letter which was signed by Mozzafar o-Din Shah to accept the Constitutional Revolution of Iran. That letter was presented to the Shah by his older brother Vosougholdoleh who was Prime Minister of Mozzafar o-Din Shah at the time. Vosougholdoleh is well known in the Iranian history for his disgraceful agreement of 1919 with British government after accepting bribe from them. Ahmad Qavam, unlike his brother, was considered a strong and patriotic politician with a good amount of political and negotiating skills in his bag. About 25 years earlier, he had been once arrested and imprisoned by Seyed Zia who was later removed of power and sent to exile by Reza Khan and then Qavam moved from Prison to the position of Prime Minister to replace him. With such background, Qavam ol-Saltaneh turned out to be a great choice to lead Iranian government during Azarbaijan crisis.

One of the shiniest points in the report card of Dr. Mohammad Mossadegh during those days was, passing of a bill in the Iranian parliament which was attributed to him and would prohibit the government of Iran from signing any agreement with any of invading powers while their troops were still in Iran. This became a good tool in the hands of Qavam to refuse granting an oil concession to Soviet Union in Northern provinces of Iran. He promised Soviets (after meeting Stalin) that when the Soviet's troops left Azarbaijan then the oil concession would be presented to the new parliament for their approval according to the law which did not permit Iranian government to make such concessions before foreign troops leave the country. Soviets had no choice but to either leave or face an international crisis so they left. This matter created an opportunity for Iranian army to move to Azarbaijan under command of General Ali Razmara and remove the puppet government from power. Jafar Pishevari and some of his friends and army left Azarbaijan for Russia by crossing northern borders. As part of the same operation, General Fazlollah Zahedi moved the units under his command to the west to disperse Kurdistan Democratic Sect and drive them out of Iranian borders to the west. According to some accounts, there were parallel activities from other routes in convincing Soviets to leave Iranian territories from which the meeting of Princess Ashraf Pahlavi (twin sister of Mohammad Reza Shah Pahlavi) with Stalin and also negotiation of US representative with Russians to respect Iranian territorial integrity (as promised by US President Roosevelt to Reza Shah) need to be mentioned.

Tudeh party which had expanded its influence and operations throughout the country by taking advantage of democratic atmosphere of the country, had found a good foothold among working class especially Iranian oil workers in southern province of Khuzestan. Oil, once again became a hot topic in the politics of Iran. Americans who had a long term plan to enter the oil business activities in Iran and had failed the first attempt due to meddling of Tudeh Party and Soviets during Prime Minister Sa'ed, did not intend to let others get away with sweet deals that they were getting from Iranians without sharing it with them. Many among Iranian elite had developed friendly sentiments towards Americans as they believed that, because of their historical conflicts with British over their independence, Americans would be supportive and reliable ally for Iranians who shared some views with them regarding meddling of British in their own affairs. In fact, Americans were considered benevolent liberators in the view of many Iranians (probably even today) who would help other nations in eliminating influence of old and evil colonial powers. Whether this view was correct or not, is debatable but the truth is that, foundation of the United States of America was put in place by some powerful Freemason figures who followed their own globalist agendas and this was the same fraternity which had influenced the politics of Iran at least since a couple of centuries ago and it might have not been very realistic to think that they would be much different than their European Mason brothers like Gore Ouseley.

The roles and influence that Tudeh party had in one of the most crucial periods of Iran's history and the links that it had with both (Russian and British) colonial powers and also to the deposed dynasty of Qajar, is so significant that requires much more attention and study to reach some real understanding and logical conclusions about this party and its effects on the current affairs in Iran. Tudeh party was successful in gaining support among some newly arrived intellectuals and working class through popular slogans. They talked about the issues which were pleasant to the ears of the portions of society that had no share in ruling power and felt to be left out. Leaders of Tudeh party were mostly coming from aristocrat families or had links with high ranking clerics with a lot of grievances and complaints towards the system which was established by Reza Shah. Nouredin Kianouri who climbed to the position of party leader in 1979, was the grandson of Sheikh Fazlollah Nouri, one of the famous Clerics of his time with proven ties to British. Sheikh Fazlollah whose opposition to Constitutional Revolution in favor of a version of religious ruling system (Velayat Faghih) became the foundation for establishment of Islamic Republic in Iran, was later tried and executed as a traitor to the nation. Nouredin married Maryam Firuz, sister of Firuz Mirza Nosrat ol-Doleh whose death during house arrest was blamed on Reza Shah by his family. According to some stories, after Reza Shah abdicated, a case against someone named Dr. Ahmadi was brought to the court of justice regarding this matter and based on complaint by Nosratol Dowleh's son, Mozzafar Firuz. The result was conviction of Dr. Ahmadi.

Maryam Firuz in her memoirs about what brought her to join Tudeh Party mentions two reasons: "the suffering of my father under Pahlavi's reign which I witnessed with my own eyes and the suppression of woman's rights" and then she adds: "I will never forget when my father desperately said if there would be anyone to revolt against the Shah and take his revenge of him?". She says that in those days everyone was on the Shah's side and the only group who fought Shah was Tudeh Party so she joined them. Maryam Firuz admits that she never studied Communism theories even though she was an important member of central committee of the party and believed that there was no need for such knowledge to join the communist party. In her view, if someone considered herself a human being, if she loved her country and her nation, she would join Tudeh Party. About her first contact with Dr. Kianoury, she says that her father and her family were familiar with Sheikh Fazlollah Nouri and his family and loved and respected Sheikh Fazlollah very much so they knew each other through family ties. Reading through these lines, one may understand that how the menace of Qajar dynasty has continued to influence the affairs of our nation since over 200 years ago even after their removal from power.

Going back to story of Tudeh party, we can not study this Iranian political group without knowing about Iraj Eskandari. Dr. Eskandari was among newly educated and trained students who came back from Europe when he was arrested along with Dr. Taghi Arani. Arani was one of the founders of communist movement in Iran along with some other people (total of 53 mentioned in previous part). According to Dr. Fereydun Keshavarz (another Tudeh Party member of the same group of 53) Eskandari was considered one of the most knowledgeable people of the group after Dr. Arani himself. After Reza Shah was removed from power, Eskandari and others were released. Shortly after that, the foundation of Tudeh Party was laid by Iraj Eskandari with the help and influence of his uncle, Soleyman Mirza Eskandari, and he became an important element within its leadership. He later climbed to the position of party leader and stayed in that position until 1979 that he was removed and replaced by Dr. Kianouri. His family was linked with Qajar royals (he was cousin of Maryam Firuz) and this matter had gained him the title of "red prince" by some communist friends. His uncle, Soleyman Mirza, was a member of Adamiyat Society (a cover name for Masonic lodge) founded by Mirza Hussein-Qoli Adamiyat. Iraj Eskandari, in his memoirs, has written in much details about everything related to Tudeh party after he left the party and took asylum in France. In order to understand Tudeh party better, Dr. Eskandari's memoirs is one of the best sources which allows us to have a look inside this party from the viewpoint of an important member and a leader who had been involved with the affairs of the party since the beginning. It is necessary to mention that Mr. Eskandari who is remembered by many of his comrades and friends as a true righteous person might have never written anything about realities of Tudeh Party for future generations (as himself put it) if the new leadership of the party would not try to smear his name through lies which they spread about him in the Islamic regime's media while in captivity.

Dr. Eskandari has written about sectarianism policies within the party which promoted certain people and even certain families which put their own interests and agendas above the policies of the party. He writes about how the problems and divisions in the leadership of Tudeh Party caused its ineffective reactions to the events in 1953 (as per Tudeh party’s historical mission) while the ordinary members followed the leadership like a bunch sheep. He says that the issue of blind following of leaders had resulted in dictatorial behavior of certain elements within the leadership which finally resulted in putting the whole party under control of KGB. He claims that as a result of false reputation of some elements, unqualified characters took over the leadership which later turned into a tool to identify and persecute of freedom lovers by Islamic Republic regime. These matters along with sheep-like attitude of followers in worshiping certain characters within leadership finally resulted in disgraceful demise and total failure of the party. Mr. Eskandari explains how Tudeh Party turned into a subdivision of so called Democratic Sect of Azarbaijan (fergheh democrat azarbaijan) after forming a union with this entity during late 1950's and early 1960's. He blames Abdolsamad Kambakhsh (of Tudeh Party leadership) who was the main ally of Kianouri, for disclosing the secret group of 53 to the government and the arrest of Dr. Taghi Arani and because of that, he had proposed (in a party convention) expelling of him and his allies from the party. The differences were temporarily settled later with the help of Maraym Firuz until Dr. Kianouri tried to climb to party leadership by making a case against Kambakhsh (resulting in his dismissal) in late 1969- early1970. Dr. Eskandari says that he did not want to allow Kianouri in such position so he became party leader himself. Eskandari says that Kianouri never believed in Communism. He (Kianouri) was very weak against any source of power and was a real coward person despite pretending to be brave. According to Eskandari, Kianouri's specialty was in lies and conspiratorial activities in which he had developed very high skills. Changing camps and joining Khomeini apparently was not out of character of Kianouri according to Eskandari. He had once praised Reza Shah in his doctorate theses as a genius and it was only after defeat of Germans in Stalingrad (St. Petersburg) that he joined communist camp.

Dr. Eskandari speaks about the passing of information about Iranian army to Soviet Union government by members of military organization through Tudeh Party which he disagreed about but could not do anything to stop it. He states that Tudeh Party in those times, was just a follower of agendas of Soviet Union and any time Soviet government was in good relations with Iranian government then Tudeh Party would stay silent. Eskandari atributes the appointment of Kianouri to party leadership and replacing him to the Soviets intelligence service, KGB which had gained full control over the party's central committee. According to him, Soviets had put the affairs of Iran and Tudeh Party in the hands of the KGB branch in Soviet Azarbaijan Republic where former members of so called "Azarbaijan Democratic Sect" stayed and worked with them. Eskandari says that Gholam-Yahya Daneshian who worked with KGB and was a close friend of Kianouri, personally made the proposal of dismissing Eskandari and appointment of Kianouri during the meeting of central committee in early months of 1979. This, Eskandari says, happened after he rejected a suggestion (in 1978) made by someone from Soviet government who was neither related to Azarbaijan nor to the ministry of foreign affairs (probably a member of central KGB), to gather Iranian military personnel who lived as refugees in all Eastern Europe in order to make them ready for initiating a civil war in Iran so that Americans had to send their forces to interfere and thus, Soviets could move their forces into Iran too; like they did in Afghanistan. Eskandari also mentions that the original suggestion to give oil concession to Soviet Union came from Kianouri and was later promoted by Ehsan Tabari who used the term "Soviet domain" for northern region of the country in this regard. He says that himself (Eskandari) once used this silly term in presence of Dr. Mosadegh who pointed at him with his pencil sharpening knife and said to him that if he (Eskandari) talked about anyone's domain in that country one more time then he (Dr. Mosadegh) would personally cut his tongue with that knife!

As we can see, decades after Qajar dynasty has been removed from ruling power in Iran, their legacy of corruption, servitude, lies and deception along with insatiable feeling of revenge from those who took away their undeserved privileges and luxuries continue to hurt our nation through the institutions and organizations that were founded mostly by the members of that family and their associates. The culture of attaching meaningless titles with ridiculous rights and privileges to the people with no real valuable qualifications, and also dependency to strangers and foreigners for petty materialistic gains and offering unconditional trust to them, had created such a poisonous environment in the politics of Iran that telling a friend from a foe was not an easy task if not impossible. Moreover, promotion of superstitious behaviors by Qajar kings and their dependent families and increasing power and role of clerics in the affairs of the nation through the royal court of Qajars had created a strong religious aristocracy within the system which spread its influence into the fabric of society that was comparable to (or even more powerful than) the influence of Zoroastrian clerics in Sassanid dynasty era. Unfortunately, this matter did not vanish after them either. The depth of corruption among elite and the extent of ignorance and illiteracy in Iranian society would not allow a speedy process to eliminate or even significantly reduce the negative effects of centuries of mismanagement by corrupt ruling powers and meddling of colonialists.

While majority in society were struggling with all kinds of miseries, the elite were busy to make plans and take revenge against one another and when everything went wrong then they tried to justify their own wrong doings by invoking complicated ideological theories or blaming others for problems. The truth is that although patriotic Iranians were not scarce in those times but infiltration by enemies and plentiful of sellouts along with egocentric behaviors of many who were involved in the politics of the nation; had created a very bad combination which called for inevitable disaster.

After WW II ended and all occupying forces left Iran, once again the issue of oil and its revenue came into focus and new negotiation started in order to advance the benefits of Iran from this natural resource by making amendments to the agreement that was made with AIOC during Reza Shah’s era. A supplemental agreement was reached between AIOC and Iranian government in 1949 that would provide Iran with 33 percent more royalties than 1933 agreement. This agreement was rejected by parliament for not addressing some major points including control over the price of oil sold inside the country and the rights for Iranian government to inspect AIOC’s financial books. Dr. Mosadegh and a group of his followers spoke up against the agreement and the discussion over this matter was dragged until the parliamentary period was over and the issue remained for next parliament to discuss after a new election. The next few years after this were the eventful years which resulted in one crisis after another and created deep divisions in our nation that were taken advantage of by enemies through manipulative propaganda and intelligence activities till this day. In the next part: the struggle over oil and promotion of falsified history about the events of 1950’s by Iran's enemies and those whose private agendas in self promotion would overshadow the Iranian national interests.

To be continued...

Sohrab Ferdows

August 10/2010

Friday, July 23, 2010

All The Shah's Men (part 1)

All the Shah's Men

Decades after Shah of Iran has been overthrown to accommodate implementation of certain policies in the region of Persian Gulf and Middle East to serve the interests of certain group of people in the world, we are still witness to the same propaganda nonsense that brought our nation to one of the lowest points in the history which is comparable to the times when Iran was overrun by Arab and Mongolian invaders centuries ago. To add more to this, one of the saddest issues of our time is glorification of ignorance under the guise of political correctness to justify and spread misinformation towards our history by some of the people who are expected to have better understanding of the political events but easily fall in the traps of false history which is fed to them through known or covert intelligence channels and propaganda. In fact, this is what paved the way for demise of our nation that was becoming prepared to enter a new era of prosperity and civilization while helping the rest of humanity in the quest for better world. All of that went down the drain and along with that, many other things throughout the world.

At least for the last two centuries, the more advanced nations which had realized the importance and effect of intelligence and propaganda in their own affairs and the relations with other nations, have increasingly invoked these tools to further their own agendas and policies in order to protect and advance their own interests and achieve their desired objectives. The importance of control over information will become more obvious when considering that, more accurate knowledge on any issue can help making better decisions and also, getting better results while avoiding waste of resources in dealing with that. These are the fundamental principles to justify use of intelligence in any situation as much as possible and these are exact same principles to justify spread of counter intelligence and misinformation in order to avoid exposure of certain agendas by confusing a targeted people. One cannot expect that others provide useful and valid information openly about their own hidden agendas in any areas which might be harmful to or against the interest of others. Misinformation has proven to be one of the most valuable tools of propaganda and psychological warfare to mislead others about true intentions regarding any tactical or strategic operation. Yuri Alexandrovich Bezmenov is a former intelligence agent of Soviet Union who defected to the west during cold war and in his interviews; he has disclosed that only 15% of resources in the field of intelligence were assigned for actual spying activities while 85% were used for brainwashing and demoralization of target societies. This matter is not specific to former Soviets Union or Russians. All advanced nations with strong propaganda tools have been taking advantage of these methods against each other and also against other nations, to achieve their goals and objectives and they continue to do so today. Spread of misinformation to create uncertainty and confusion towards certain matters is an important part of any psychological warfare in order to manipulate and disable the forces of a targeted people which might otherwise pose a threat or create undesired problems.

During the cold war era, Iran, as country which was at the forefront of conflicts between the East and the West, was under immense pressure by both sides of the quarrel and their internal elements. This issue created a lot of problems and restrictions for the nation in the areas of political and economic relations and developments. The problem had started right after end of WW II while Iran did not have enough time to recover from many of the major issues that she was facing as a result of decades (or even centuries) of corruption of ruling aristocracy and interference of greedy foreign powers. Before that, in the year 1941, Iran was forced to enter the war after being unjustly attacked and occupied by Allies, and break its neutrality to take side with the powerful invaders. This matter made it inevitable for Iran to become a field for future political games and manipulations by the great powers of the world and their agents inside the country. Presence of plenty of corrupt politicians among the ruling aristocrats which were all in love with the tribal traditions of hand kissing and servitude of subordinates while themselves would stop at nothing to please their own foreign masters, had made Iran a favorable place for covert or even open activities of colonialist and expansionist powers of the time since over a century earlier.

Reza Shah Pahlavi became the Shah and top political figure in Iran after almost 150 years of Qajar's ruling of the country. His rise from the bottom of society to the top in fact might have been one of the reasons that, despite all his services in development of the country and saving the people from extreme misery of disease and poverty, he was strongly disliked by many among Iranian elite which mainly came from Qajar aristocrats. Neither Reza Shah nor any of his ancestors (as far as history can tell) was part of Iranian aristocracy to link him with one or another foreign powers. His father, Abas-ali, who was an officer of Iranian army during Qajar, died before his birth and his mother, Nushafarin khanum, decided to migrate from the village of Alasht to Tehran where her brother lived. Reza grew in extremely poor condition and experienced poverty and injustice directly, which was imposed on Iranian society by corrupted ruling class, corrupt clerics and their foreign masters. He had to work hard at a very young age to support his mother and himself and that provided him with opportunity to see all the problems in society and experience them directly. During those years, children education was a luxury which was available only to a small portion of society which had all the means of prosperity in their monopoly while majority of Iranians lived a very poor life. This matter in fact became an important element in Reza Shah's plans once he had the opportunity to do something about it when in the position of leadership.

Reza's career in the Persian Cossack Brigade which was organized and run by Russians at that time was result of a lucky incident along his fascination with the marching and ceremonies that this military group carried every day in their barracks. Cossack's barracks was on the path which Reza walked all the time to do his business. He enjoyed watching the performance of organized uniformed Cossacks every day. As a strong and tall teenager, Reza drew the attention of a Cossack’s commander who noticed his interest while watching the ceremony and was asked by the commander if he was interested to join. Reza accepted immediately and started his long journey to change the destiny of his nation by freeing them from the hands of corrupt ruling leaders and putting the nation on the path of modernity and progress. It is true that Reza Khan's ascending to the position of Cossack's leadership after Russians revolution (which resulted in abandoning Cossacks) was with assistance and advice of a British officer named General Ironside whose mission was to find a strong military man to lead the Cossack Brigade. This was in fact to avoid chaos that might have affected the stability of Iran while British were not able to deal with that situation directly, but this matter in no way means that he was bound to follow the agenda of British in Iran. Even some of those who considered Reza Shah as their own enemy could not deny this. Reza Khan (as he was known by that time) was a very intelligent person who had realized the terrible situation that his country was in, and took advantage of the opportunity to put his own agenda to work in order to free his nation from dependency to foreigners (British and Russians in particular) as he continued to expand his control over different elements of power and affairs of the nation.

Reforming the nation with a backward and corrupt system and culture and dragging it into a modern age in a short period of time was an extremely hard task. The material that was available to Reza Khan was none other than remnants of Qajars aristocracy and an extremely poor nation which was ridden with disease and suppressed under local greedy and ruthless rulers who cared for nothing other than holding their own power over miserable people at any price. Later on, when he had become the Shah of Iran, someone told him that he had to either use Qajars statesmen and accept all the consequences of it (which meant continuing injustice and corruption) or start making his own statesmen by training new groups of people. This was an important task and in order to accomplish that, Reza Shah initiated a program to send some of Iranian students to European countries (France in particular) at the expense of government to get trained as new statesmen and experts to run the country for betterment of the nation. Among the first group of students, we see some familiar names like Mehdi Bazargan (who became the first PM after Islamic revolution) and Dr. Taghi Arani who established the first communist movement in Iran that later became Tudeh party. Undoubtedly, most of these people believed that they were serving Iranian people while they were in fact working against the interests of their own nation after getting the education that was intended to make them better statesmen for their country. There were many others who went the same route and some of them even found the opportunity to hold important positions within the system that they helped to break later.

In those days, it was the hardest thing for any leader in Iran, to find the people who could be trusted with any kind of work. Majority of people were poor, illiterate and ignorant and a big portion of limited number of educated people in Iranian society took pride in serving the interest of foreigners rather than their own or were after their own fantasies to save the nation by resorting to unrealistic and impractical ideologies and philosophies. It was under such conditions that Reza Khan had to implement his nationalistic agendas and revive the spirit of nationalism and pride in the heart of Iranians and put the nation on the path of progress and modernization with the help of those who were willing and capable of helping. He took advantage of weakness of Russian and British governments after the war to put his agenda to work and prepare the nation to enter the age of modernity through establishment of unquestionable authority for central Iranian government by suppressing the local rulers who dreamed of disintegrating the nation with the help of British or Russians. Many decades of weak and corrupt governments during Qajars had resulted in loss of big portions of Iranian territory in the north, east and south and Iran was on the verge of further disintegration from north and the south with the help of foreign agents. At this stage of his work, Reza Khan had assistance of some of nationalist Iranian army officers to impose the authority of central government throughout the nation and from those, name of Fazlollah Zahedi as a major army commander who later played another important role in another sensitive part of Iranian history, should be mentioned.

Reza Shah, who had felt the harshness and pain of poverty and injustice in Iran with his own flesh and blood during his childhood and teenage years, realized that he could not rely on taxing poor people for all his ambitious projects to improve the condition of living in the country. Search for other resources of funding drew his attention to oil which was being exploited by British under an unfair agreement that was originally made between William Knox D'Arcy and Mozaffar-odin shah Qajar and was slightly modified later in 1919 to satisfy the financial needs of Qajar king, Ahmad Shah. The need for money to fund development projects in the areas of national health-care, education, military, economy and industrialization, forced Iranian government to ask Anglo-Iranian oil company for renegotiating of the oil contract which was denied quickly. Failure of all efforts to convince the British side to increase Iranian share from oil left no choice for Reza Shah other than canceling the agreement from his own side. Daniel Yergin in his book: "The Prize, epic quest for Oil, Money and Power" describes Reza Shah's reaction to oil issue with following words:

"At the very bottom of the depression, Shah Reza Pahlavi of Persia became infuriated at discovery that, as an observer put it, "oil is not gold in these days." The Shah's country had become an oil state; petroleum royalties from Anglo-Persian provided two-third of its export earnings and a substantial part of government revenues. But, with the Depression, the royalties from Anglo-Persian plummeted to the lowest since 1917. Appalled and outraged, the Shah blamed the company, and he decided to take matters in his own hands. At a Cabinet meeting on November 16, 1932, to surprise of his ministers, he abruptly announced that he was unilaterally canceling Anglo-Persian's concession. It was the thunderbolt that no one had really believed that Shah would dare deliver. His action threatened the very existence of Anglo-Persian."

Reza Shah threw D'Arcy's contract in the fireplace out of frustration and declared it canceled when leader of Iranian negotiating team told him the contract is not negotiable! Some time earlier, in a private meeting with an educated Iranian who had criticized his decision regarding an issue, Reza Shah had told him that he was only a soldier of the nation and needed help of educated and expert people like him to come forward and provide ideas, directions and advice for better outcome of any plan so he could push to implement them. He even participated in manual labor work during construction of a road side by side with other workers to show that he would do anything to help in reconstructing the country. But in the case of oil, nobody seemed to be able to help and no other valuable resources were available to support development projects so Reza Shah decided to nullify the D'Arcy's contract altogether to force the Anglo-Iranian Oil Company into negotiation and it worked. It's worth mentioning here that nationalization of oil industry was once discussed during this period and was rejected by parliament in a realistic move as Iran did not have the skilled manpower and the resources for operating such industries at that time. Late Dr. Mosadegh who was an MP from Tehran and later in 1950's became champion of oil nationalization voted against it (and rightfully so) at that time.

One of the events which happened in the same period that Iranian government was struggling to get a better share of revenue from its oil industry was discovery of a plot to topple Reza Shah. At the top of this plot, a high ranking Qajar aristocrat, Firouz Mirza Nosrat o-dowleh, who continued to hold important government positions while still dreaming of restoring Qajar dynasty with himself at the top. Nosrat o-Dowleh along with a few others were arrested and put in jail. This matter had a negative effect on Reza Shah's trust towards his Court Minister, Abdolhossein Teymourtash, whom he consulted on every matter including oil related discussions. Teymourtash, according to writings of some of Iranian and foreign diplomats who knew him closely, had a lot of influence on Reza Shah at some point as he was the only person who had direct contact with the Shah. This matter had become a reason for jealousy of many who despised him for his power and influence. Some people accused him of taking advantage of his position and influence in financial institution (which he worked with at some point) to gather wealth and support his gambling habits. According to some stories, his womanizing habits resulted in becoming a victim of British espionage activities and losing a briefcase full of documents regarding his secret communications and relations with Soviet officials which ended up in Times of London to intensify suspicion towards him. This event happened when Teymourtash made a stop in Moscow to talk to Soviets on his return from London to Tehran. He was on a mission to convince the British to enter negotiation for a new contract with Iranian government over oil but failed to gain anything from that visit. Another story claims that a Russian who defected to Iran provided some information about Teymourtash being a spy for Soviet Union. Mr. Hassan Taghizadeh who later signed the new oil contract with British; has claimed that Teymourtash was innocent and what happened to him was unfair. But according to some reports, family of Teymourtash consider Taghizadeh the reason for his imprisonment and death in prison. As we can see from this little story, backstabbing, suspicions, espionage, betrayals, trickery and intrigues from every side had made Iranian political environment so intense and so complicated in those days that it was impossible to reach a solid and clear conclusion on any matter with confidence. This was a common issue regarding anything in the politics of Iran which suffered from poisonous relations that existed in our country because of corrupt aristocratic system and influence and propaganda of greedy colonial powers.

The conflict with Anglo-Iranian Oil Company was not settled easily and British side decided to take the matter to Permanent Court of International Justice which Iranian government refused to accept its competence and therefore the matter was taken before the Security Council in the League of Nations. At this time, British accepted to enter talks with Iran for a new concession after the League of Nations advised both parties to go back to negotiating table. Resulting contract after over a year of bargaining by both sides, provided Iranian government with much bigger share from oil while completely canceling the exclusive right of oil transportation for British side (which was very important from Iran's point of view) and reducing the geographical area of the concession that covered about 85% of the whole country earlier, but extending the period of contract till 1979. According to some stories, this matter was brought into discussion in the last days of negotiation by Anglo-Persian Oil Company. Seyed Hassan Taghizadeh was the leader of Iranian negotiating team, who came from a religious background (his father was a mullah named Seyed Taghi) and himself was a mullah during younger age. He later turned into a secular politician and his activities and roles in politics of Iran during Constitutional Revolution and after that was well known to many Iranians. The issue of extending the oil contract was later questioned by some of the members of parliament in an inquiry session from Mr. Taghizadeh, who led the negotiating team for Iran. When he was asked why he agreed with extension of the contract, he blamed Reza Shah indirectly (after Reza Shah's abdication) and claimed that he was afraid for his life if he did not. Regarding the oil dispute with British, Mr. Ismail Raeen in his book "Freemasonry in Iran" says that British had brought their Navy and other military forces around southern Iranian ports of Abadan and Bushehr to influence the outcome of negotiation at that time. British government which had switched all of its naval ships from burning coal to more efficient oil-based fuel in 1914, and had been tied to Iranian oil, was the main shareholder of Anglo-Persian Oil Company and intended to show to Iranians that she was serious in protecting her interests at any price.

Disputes between Iranian government and British over oil, although resolved in principles for the time being but continued over many other details. In the year 1941 presence of a group of German citizens became an excuse for Allies to attack Iran by accusing Iranian government of collaboration with Germans. After the WW I had ended, Germany which was driven out of world's oil market entered into an agreement with Iran to get one million barrel of oil in exchange for construction of two sulfur plants in Masjed Soleyman. In fact, some experts assert that oil was a major reason for Hitler to go to war as Germany was in serious need of oil to follow its industrial development projects. Shortly after Allies invasion of Iran, Reza Shah was forced to abdicate when British positioned their forces near the Capital and threatened that they would attack Tehran if he did not resign. During the days of the few weeks after Invasion of Iran by Anglo-Soviet forces, Reza Shah was target of worst attacks by British propaganda machine. They accused Reza Shah of being a despot and repressive ruler. In one occasion when the price of bread soared because most of the food was taken by occupying forces and created a near famine state in the country, Reza Shah interfered and ordered to reduce the price by 50%. This matter became a subject of negative propaganda by BBC which accused Reza Shah of forcing the poor bakers to pay the difference while in fact; it was Iranian government that subsidized the price of wheat and bread. The amount of false and negative propaganda by British and their supporters in politics of Iran against Reza Shah was so overwhelming that even some of true supporters of Reza Shah like Ali Dashti had turned against him. This matter had effectively disabled any reaction from the public in support of deposed Shah while most of Iranian people were watching as events unfolded, just like impartial bystanders. Daniel Yergin in his book attributes the rise of opposition to Reza Shah after his abdication to his distrustful treatment of even faithful supporters as he was suspicious of everyone. Knowing the history and background of deep corruption which had taken over the elite and higher classes of Iranian society have been definitely a major factor in this regard that Mr. Yergin could not have in dept information about. He mentions that Reza Shah once told a visitor that Iranians were "bigoted and ignorant" and considered Anglo-Iranian Oil Company something like mullahs, an element of power within power, and he was determined to reduce the power and influence of both.

Manuchehr Farmanfarmaian, a member of Qajar family whose ancestral tree reaches to Abbas Mirza and Mozafar-odin Shah Qajar, in his book "Blood and Oil", has written following lines about the time that Reza Shah was forced to leave Iran:

"Reza Shah's ouster was greeted with relief: no more police state, no more arbitrary self-aggrandizement on the part of Crown. We celebrated his fall, quickly forgetting that the most important human right is to live under a government strong enough to maintain law and order-- and that he had delivered such a government. Even the worst tyranny is better than no government at all, since nothing causes human beings so much misery as anarchy. Yet anarchy is what we were in the midst of as we hailed the new king, enthroned by Great Powers as they squatted on our land, while turning our faces from the man who had brought a modicum of cohesion to our country and relief from outside predators."

Mr. Famanfarmaian also mentions in his book that the British ambassador, Reader Bullard, was not happy about replacing Reza Shah with the Crown Prince and was in favor of either a Qajar king or a different member of Pahlavi family. Apparently, he even offered the throne of Iran to a Qajar prince known as Sarameh-doleh which he refused. According to memoirs of Prince Hamid Mirza Qajar who later joined British Navy with the name of David Drumond, the British plan was to install him as King of Persia but this plan did not go through after they realized that Mr. Foroughi had taken the Crown Prince of Reza Shah to the parliament to take the oath of office as the king of Iran. Reading through these lines might help us understand to some degree that what kind of situation Iran had at that time and how close it was to total colonization by British empire which its ambassador allowed himself to intervene in decision making about who should be at the top of the government system in that country even though Iran had a constitution and a parliament and a Crown Prince to keep things in order.

It is obvious that the issue of oil in Iran and dispute over that with British government as the main shareholder was not going to go away easily. This matter continued to affect the politics in Iran and the relations with oil consortium and British government for a very long time. Later on, US government and oil companies which were reluctant earlier to venture into Iranian oil exploration business in the eastern region of the country, were dragged into this story as partners to make things even more complicated. This matter continued throughout the rest of previous century and as we shall see, left its deep marks not only in the politics of Iran but also in the region and possibly the whole world. Mr. Farmanfarmian who worked in ministry of finance at some point, has brought a little story in his book about a meeting with a couple of American "oil consultants" in 1944 who were invited by Prime Minister Sa'ed at that time to bring Americans into oil equation in order to change the situation and take away British monopoly on Iranian oil by giving a new concession to Americans in the north region of the country. These two Americans were Herbert Hoover Jr. and A.A. Curtice who were both involved in negotiation between American oil company (mainly Standard Oil which belonged to Rockefellers) and Mexican government in their dispute during late 1920's. The first 50-50 contract in the oil business was signed with Mexican government at that time which settled the dispute to the satisfactory of both sides and started a new trend that was later applied to the oil concessions in other areas where Americans were involved. British however, were not happy about 50-50 contracts and had no intention to follow American model until they ran into serious problems and confrontations with Iranians.

Mr. Farmanfarmaian says that he told Hoover (the American oil consultant) about dominance of British in the oil business in Persian Gulf region which, as he believed, would drive Americans out of the area but Hoover laughed at him and said that he was overestimating British power. Then Hoover told him that British would have no choice but to share the oil in future which sounded very unbelievable to him. He later shared this information with his cousin, Dr. Mohammad Mosadeq who was an MP from Tehran at that time who expressed his deep appreciation in exchange. From the comments made by Mr. Farmanfarmaian in this regard and also in other parts of his book, it seems very likely that himself has been at least very sympathetic towards British at that point which was not uncharacteristic from a Qajar aristocrat. In some other parts of the book, he mentions another story about his meeting with American representative to complain about the Iranian election fraud which had cost him his seat in the parliament. This indicates that how the typical Iranian politicians were after resolving their problems by resorting to relations with foreign elements and centers of power because otherwise what could be the point of such discussion? This matter was very common in Iran especially in those days that Iran had turned into playground of all major powers of the world. A new trend was unfolding in the political arena of Iran as a new power was expanding its involvement in the political games of this country.

Soon after discussions with American consultants, Iranian communist party of Tudeh organized a massive demonstration in which they shouted "death to Sa'ed" and demanded the oil concession to be given to Soviet Union! Interestingly enough, many units of Soviet Red Army soldiers and armored vehicles and tanks were present in this demonstration alongside with Tudeh party which they could never deny it but tried to downplay that by attributing the presence of Red Army to October Revolution celebration. Some of Tudeh members who have published their memoirs later claimed that Red Army's appearing in that event was unexpected and Tudeh party leaders were not aware of that. Iraj Eskanadri who was a prominent member and later became the party leader, has complained (decades after the fact) about Red Army and Soviets demands in that event which had a huge negative effect on the image of the party. Tudeh party has always tried to present itself as defender of Iranian people's rights but turned out to be a tool in the hands of Iran's enemies to put pressure on Iranian government. In this way, an attempt by PM Sa'ed which was supposed to be carried out secretly in order to keep the British and Soviets of meddling in that affair, was brought to an end with a fiasco without producing any result. The news had somehow leaked to Soviets and Tudeh party in which Maryam Firouz (Mr. Farmanfarmaian's sister) was among its leaders.

Now that I mentioned about two members of Farmanfarmaian family, I have to add here that Abdol-Hossein Mirza Farmanfarma (father of Mr. Manouchehr Farmanfarmaian), who had a total of 36 children from his 8 wives, was a known Anglophile. He was considered a friend by Percy Sykes who headed South Persia Riffles army that was established by British to control southern regions of Iran. Farman-Farma had been awarded the Order of St Michael and St George by British for his services and held many different government positions in the south and west parts of the country. He was governor of Fars province when Reza Shah took his troops to Tehran. He was later replaced by his nephew, Dr. Mohammad Mosadeq and was called to Tehran by Reza Khan to be imprisoned upon his arrival along with his son, Nosrat ol-doleh (father of Mozzafar Firouz who played a revengeful part against Pahlavis throughout his political career). Firouz Mirza Nosrat ol-Doleh whose mother was daughter of Mozzafar ol-Din Shah, was minister of foreign affairs of Ahmad Shah and the prime candidate to become the next Qajar king after him. Nosrat ol-Doleh and his sister Maryam later chose the name of their grandfather, Firouz, as their surname.

This was a very brief summary of what founded and shaped the political relations of Iran (internally and externally) during the decades after the WW II which I will discuss in next part and that will include some of original and true intelligence reports and documents that despite wide circulation of falsified and fictional stories, have somehow escaped the attention of mainstream media and propaganda systems to mislead the public about the truth and hidden agendas of interested powers.

To be continued..

Sohrab Ferdows

July 18th/2010

Thursday, April 22, 2010

The Invisible Empire

The story of new world order became a well known matter by most people since the time that former president of the United States; G.H. Bush openly spoke about it. In the first glance, the new order of the world with one superpower after break up of Soviet Union, and creation of a single world government system to run the affairs of the whole planet does not seem a bad idea. After all, different nations share the same environment on a planet with limited resources which is more like a very tiny dot in a vast universe that its realities change frequently as human's knowledge advances. All of it may sound very nice. Prosperity and resources will be shared by humanity and international hostilities will cease in the light of more harmonious developments. Peace and tranquility will dominate on the planet and humans can engage in activities with higher and nobler purpose than gaining and collecting wealth and serving selfish agendas. Sounds very much like a beautiful dream but, is it anything other than that? We may have a second thought about it once we hear what some of so called "conspiracy buffs" have to say. What will be the share of Iranian nation in this "new world order"? This should definitely be important to all of us as Iranian nationals because we consider ourselves an important element in establishment of civilization on this planet. What do we get in "new world order"? Is "new world order" conspiracy or a fact? How does it work? Who is in charge?

The fact is that having single governing authority for all humanity is not a new idea. Since the establishment of the first empire in the world by Cyrus the Great, this notion has been followed by many rulers in different parts of the world to justify the expansionist policies for domination over other people and exploitation of their resources. Empires of all sorts came and went and nothing is left of them today other than some ruins and historical tales. What can make another empire to have a different destiny? History shows that brutal repression has always been one of the tools which were employed by empires for expansion and survival until they faced an enemy which was more powerful than them. It is obvious that the nature of human beings has not changed much since the beginning of the mankind and no empire has vanished voluntarily if not faced with resistance and rebellion from its subjects or from external sources of opposing power. Is it possible to create a single world authority without need for brutal repression? Without exploitation of the weak for the interest of powerful? Without corruption of authorities? Without monopoly of resources and power by a few who have gained their wealth and power through corruption and manipulations? Is it possible to build a fair and just universal system with remnants of a corrupt system that have had the main roles in corruption of the whole system and society before that? These are just a few questions from many which one may have about establishment of a new world order with single governing authority.

One of the major issues about "new world order" is with some of those who are most serious proponents of single world authority and the values that they believe in as much as it shows through their actions. The trail of their corrupt and criminal activities in most cases includes but is not limited to stealing, bribery, blackmail, murder and assassination that have been committed openly or through covert operations (if necessary) to maintain their own grip on power through manipulation of society and monopolization of resources. These affairs were not just happening in United States or Europe. The whole world has not been immune of these crimes. Daniel Yergin in his great and well documented book, "The Prize: The Epic Quest for Oil, Money, and Power", has written in details about how some of western corporations (mainly British and Americans) imposed and maintained their monopoly in the field of energy in the world through unwritten contracts and agreements while conspiring against others. Many speculate that the Italian oil tycoon Enrico Maatei who coined the name "The Seven Sisters" for the main oil cartel in those days (Exxon/Esso, Shell, BP, Gulf, Texaco, Mobil, Socal/Chevron) and was killed in a mysterious plane crash shortly after he agreed to give a better deal (than oil consortium) to Iranian government at that time, was just one of many victims who tried to enter in a field that the oil cartel considered their own rightful domain. There are many other sources which provide information about how this new invisible empire of corporations has been creeping its way to take over the world's resources for a long time and it is just now, thanks to internet and explosion of information, that all these sources of information are reachable in much easier ways than before to help us understand what is being done to humanity and how.

Takeover of the world's resources by stateless or globalist corporations is not an American issue as American people themselves are also victims of this phenomenon. There are many people of different professions in America who have joined the efforts to expose the evil which is presenting itself as savior of humanity. Invisible Empire is name of a documentary made by a young American named Jason Bermas who started doubting the information that was coming out of main stream media and official sources and decided to research the matters on his own and find out the truth. His quest to find the truth started after the event of 9/11/2001 and Invisible Empire is his most recent production. It may not be perfect and complete but it definitely is a great piece of work to make us wonder about many things and events which have also affected our lives and the life of our nation. Whether it's called conspiracy or something else, the facts are there and it is up to us if we choose to see and question them or ignore them. Here is the link to the new video which is about 2 hr long:

The Invisible Empire